The Varying Geographical Names In The Island Of Cyprus
ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY OF TRAVEL IN EGYPT AND THE NEAR EAST
11-12 SEPTEMBER 2004
FAMAGUSTA GATE, NICOSIA
the VARYING geographical names IN the island of Cyprus, RECORDED BY THE TRAVELLERS SINCE 23 B.C.
Cyprus could be well claimed to be the most visited place and best
cartographically documented island in the world due to it’s location on the main
maritime passage way from Europe to Holy Land and end of Silk Road to Europe.
The island's strategic
importance through its situation at the cross-roads of Europe, Asia and Africa
archaeologist wrote in 1880, "He who would
become and remain a great power in the East must hold
This foresight or advise is still valid even in the 21st Century.
Since the Phoenicians (10th to 8th Century B.C.), Assyrians, Egyptians, Persians, Ptolemies, Romans, Byzantine, Arabs, English (Richard I the Lion Heart), Frankish (French), Genoese (partly), Venetian (Italian), Ottoman (Turkish) and English ruled the island. During these periods names of the cities, towns, villages, ports, mountains, hills, rivers, streams, creeks, ponds, lakes, capes and similar geographic places kept changing.
Sometimes when reading a manuscript written down by a traveler dated back to medieval, it becomes very hard to understand what happened where because of the rapid change of the names due the different back grounds and languages of governing bodies and their forcibly change of names of the places on the island. In addition to this factor, the language-wise back ground of the traveling authors, which number to around one hundred different personalities and fifteen different languages also effected the differently pronunciation and recording of the geographic places on their notes.
Going through the existing manuscripts as from 23 B.C., maps of the island of Cyprus published since 16th Century and books written in medieval times, nearly 1000 different versions of the names of cities, towns and villages of Cyprus found due to the differently country-wise and language-wise originated travelers.
This research and compilation of these names will ease the problem of understanding the historical topics written in different languages during different ruling periods.
One of the first geographic manuscripts mentioning the
According to Herodotus, Aristogoras of
Militus convinced Spartan King Cleomenes to assist the Ionians fighting against
the Persians in ca 500 B.C. by pointing out to him the route to
The first map showing
Publications and Manuscripts of the Travellers
Cyprus as mentioned previously, were under the effect and pressure of the civilizations around the Mediterranean since early ages due to its very important location, being in the middle of the trade road between East and West, being on the roads to Holy Land and due to reasons originated from its unique geography.
When the “List of
the names” attached to this paper is studied, it can be seen very clearly
and amazingly that the name of the
These different and varied names are “Acamantis”, “Acamas”, “Acantida”, “Achamantide”, “Achametide”, “Aerosa”, “Amathus”, “Amatusa”, “Amathusia”, “Aphrodite Cypris”, “Aspelia”, “Aspellia”, “Astimono”, “Carastis”, “Carastoni”, “Cerasi”, “Cerastin”, “Cerastis”, “Ceraunia”, “Cethim”, “Cethin”, “Cethina”, “Chetim”, “Chetima”, “Chitim”, “Cipir”, “Cypre”, “Colinia”, “Collinia”, “Colonia”, “Copper”, “Cripton”, “Cytherea”, “Crytono”, “Cypiria”, “Cypris”, “Cypros”, “Crypta”, “Crypton”, “Cryptus”, “Kerastia”, “Macaria”, “Machara”, “Macharia”, “Marchara”, “Maxalia”, “Minois”, “Paphia”, “Qibris Adasy”, “Salamina”, “Salaminia”, “Spelia”, “Sphekeia”.
of sovereigns ruled and accordingly the different languages spoken in the
The second main reason is the travelers, who visited
this island on their way to
As known very clearly that the pilgrims of the Europe
willing to visit “Terra Sancta” the
The literate pilgrims who took this break as a chance to travel around and note down their souvenirs and perceptions, collected, edited and printed this information as a paper or in a book form on their arrival back to their home country. The number of such travelers are as much as one hundred and sixty seven  and they are from thirteen different countries. This variation caused the afore mentioned publications to be printed on thirteen different languages and accordingly each different language had its own unique pronunciation, spelling and writing of the islands geographic names.
The names of the geographic places they noted down were under the effect of heir native languages in pronunciation, spelling and writing wise. When these notes, books or papers were examined thoroughly, it is clearly seen that the geographic names they mentioned were altered under the pressure of their native tongues with out any intentions.
Effect of travelers on the geographic names
The cartographer Iacomo Franco and the other followers
printed maps of the
A. & J. Stylianou  made a comparison study on Matheo
Pagano 1538 map, Giovanni Francesco Camocio, 1566 map and Abraham Ortelius, 1570
map, to compare the exactness of locations in these maps of
The traveling notes written down by 82 travelers
compiled by C. D. Cobham under the title “Excerpta
Cypria” and 85 travelers compiled by T. A. H. Mogabgab  under the title “Excerpts
on Cyprus” contains total of 891 varied names of locations in the island of
Cyprus including A. & J. Stylianou’s findings. As mentioned in the previous
paragraph, 53 of these different names means or indicates the island of “
The varying names of same locations based on the information given by the travelers or mentioned in their publications, were used very widely by the cartographers in their maps and by the time these numerous variations lead to serious complications on understanding clearly “what happened where”.
The people who are interested in the “History of Cyprus” when reading the manuscripts, books, traveling notes, itineraries, narratives, chronicles, peregrinations, maps and etc. end up with fogginess or mess up due to the unconformable location names mentioned. The subject studied on, becomes more and more complicated and most of the time end up with wrong results due to lack of a scientific reference as this research.
This paper will ease these problems and open up new
horizons to the researchers of the “History
of Cyprus” by giving birth to 891 previously unknown location names used
Cobham, C. D., Excerpta Cypria,
 Cobham, C. D., Excerpta Cypria, Cambridge University Press: UK, pp 4, 1908
 Stylianou A. & J. A., The History of the Cartography of Cyprus, Zavallis Press : Cyprus, pp 1, 162, 1980
 Mogabgab, Theophilus A. H., Excerpts on Cyprus, Zavalli Pres : Cyprus, pp. v, 1945
Cobham, C. D., Excerpta Cypria, Cambridge University Press: UK, pp iii, 1908
 Stylianou A. & J. A., The History of the Cartography of Cyprus, Zavallis Press : Cyprus, pp 17 to 24, 1980
 H. H. Kitchener, A Trigonometrical Survey of the Island of Cyprus, Edward Stanford : England, sheets 1 to 15, 1882
1) C. D. Cobham : Excerpta Cypria.
1.st Ed 1908, Cambridge, University Press, Kraus Reprint Co., Newyork, 1969.
2) Suphi Rıza : Mağusa’da Tarihi Yerler
2.nd Ed, Nicosia, Bolan Printing, 1989.
3) T.C. Genelkurmay Harp Tarihi Başkanlığı Resmi Yayınları No. 2 : Türk Silâhlı Kuvvetleri Tarihi, III’ncü Cilt, 3’ncü Kısım Eki, Kıbrıs Seferi (1570-1571) kitabı.
Ankara, Genel Kurmay Basımevi, 1971.
4) Hürriyet Matbaacılık : 100 Ünlü Türk İstanbul, 1977
5) Abdülkadir Dedeoğlu : Osmanlılar Albümü.
Osmanlı Yayınevi, İstanbul.
6) Antros Pavlides : History of Cyprus
Filokipros, 1992, Nicosia.
7) Rita Severis : Travelling Artists in Cyprus 1700-1960
Philip Wilson Publishers, London, 2000.
8) Halil Giray : KKTC Yerleşim Birimleri
Gazimağusa ve İskele İlçeleri, Yürürlükteki ve Eski İsimler Listesi
9) KKTC İskân Bakanlığı : KKTC Coğrafi İsimler Kataloğu : (Cilt – II),
10) Theophilus A. H. Mogabgab : Excerpts on Cyprus
The Pusey Pres, Nicosia, 1941
11) D. G. Hogarth : Notes of an archaeological journey in Cyprus in 1888 (Devia Cypria)
Henry Frowde Pres, london, 1889
12) Sir David Hunt : Footprints in Cyprus
Trigraph Ltd., London, 1982
13) Kypros Tofallis : A History of Cyprus
The Greek Institute, London 2002
14) Oğuz Yorgancıoğlu : Kıbrıs’ta Türkçe Yer Adları ve Veriliş Yöntemleri Üzerine Bir Araştırma
Kıbrıs Araştırmaları Dergisi, Cilt : 2, Sayı : 3, Yıl : 96, s. 267
15) Halil Giray : Geçmişten Günümüze Kıbrıs Harita ve Planları,
Üçüncü UIuslararası Kıbrıs Araştırmaları Kongresi, 13-17 Nov 2000, Cilt 1, Tarih, Yatına Hazırlayan : İsmail Bozkurt, s. 62
1) İbrahim Alaettin Gövsa : Türk Meşhurları Ansiklopedisi.
Yedigün. İstanbul, 1946.
2) Ana Yayıncılık : Ana Britannica Genel Kültür Ansiklopedisi
3) Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc : Encyclopaedia Britannica
Universal Copyright. USA, 1966.
4) Filokypros E. E. Ltd.: Megali Kupriaki Egkuklopedia
5) Webster Publishing :
Webster’s World Encyclopeadia 2002 CD rom.
6) Meydan Larousse : Büyük Lugat ve Ansiklopedi,
Sabah Yayınları,İstanbul, 1992.
7) Oxford Ansiklopedik Sözlük : Yılmaz Yayınları A.Ş.
Sabah Yayıncılık, İstanbul, 1990.
MAPS AND ATLASSES
1) A. Hadjipaschalis, M Iacovou : Maps and Atlases
Bank of Cyprus, Nicosia 1989.
2) Hürriyet, Naumann & Göbel : Grosser Weltatlas
Hürriyet Gazetecilik ve Matbaacılık A.Ş. İstanbul, 1993.
REFERENCING MAPS :
1) Pierre Mortier : Map of Natolia, Asia Minor,
Anetore PHI. De la RUE. Amsterdam, 1700.
2) Abraham Ortelius : Peregrinations divi Pauli Tyrus Corographicus
3) Gabriel Bodenehr : Das Mittelaendische Meer,
4) Guiljelmus Et Iohannes Blaeu : Turcicum Imperium,
5) Francois De L’isle : Tabula itineris Decies Mille.
P. du Val Geographe du Roy. Fransa.
6) Isaak Tirion : Nuova Carta del Europa Turchesca.,
7) R. Spofforth Sculp: A New Map of the Eastern Parts of Asia Minor.
8) George Braun - Frans Hogenberg : Calaris-Malta-Rhodus-Famagusta. Civitates Orbis Terrarum. Cologne, 1599.
9) Abraham Orteliu : Cyprus Insula Laeta Choris
Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, Antwerp, 1608.
10) Cornelis Claesz – Petrus Bertius : Descripto Cypri,
Caert-Throsoor, Amsterdam, 1603.
11) Gerard Mercator (Haritacı) - Jodocus Hondius (Yayıncı) : Cyprus Insula,
12) KKTC İskân Bakanlığı Harita Şubesi, TC. Harita Genel Komutanlığı, 1995
Kıbrıs Fiziki Haritası, Baskı : 1 THGK
13) J. Wyld Geographer : Map of Cyprus,
14) H. H. Kitchener : Island of Cyprus, London, 1882.
15) A Visitor’s Map of Cyprus : Department of Lands and Surveys,
Cyprus, First Edition 1986, 4/94.
16) Benedetto Bardone : Venedik, 1534.
17) Pierre Mortier – Philippe de La Rue : Anatolia-AsiaMinor, Amsterdam, 1700.
18) Kemal Rüstem & Brother : Cyprus (North & South),
Prepared by Oxford Cartographers, 1989
19) Kıbrıs İdari Taksimat ve Karayolları Haritası
MSB Harita Genel Müdürlüğü, 1972.
20) Lazkiyye : Carte de L’empire Ottoman,
Chez. CH. PICQUET, 1816 - 1836, Orleans, Fransa.
21) Les Estats de L’Empire des Turqs en Asie. : Parle Sanson D’Aabberville.
Geographe Ordinaire du Roy A, Paris, 1684
22) Questa e la uera descriptione et Geographia de tutta linsula de Cypre : Stampata in Venetia per Matheo pagano 1538 
23) J.P. Foscolo : Island of Cyprus . 1550,
24) F. Bertelli : Isola di Cipro . Roma, 1562
25) J.F. Camotii : Cyprus, insula nobilissima : expensis in oes incisa. Venice, 1566
26) N. Bonifacio Sibenicensis: Cyprus Insula. Venice, 1570
27) N. Nelli : Cipro. Venice, 1570
28) P. Forlani : Carta ou'e distintamente e fedelmete descritta 1'Isola di Cipro; il porto d'Anemur, fatto, e fortificato dal S. Turco nella Caramania, dirimpetto a detta Isola; e una gra parte dell Soria. Venetia, 1570
29) No name : Cyprus, quae oilm Macaria id est Beata, Insula, est in sinu Carpamii maris sita : Venice, 1570
30) Apud A Egid : Cyprvs Insvla Antverpiae. Coppenium Diesth, XX. May, 1570
31) A. Lafrery: Disegno de 1'Isola di Cypro con li Confini della Caramania, Soria, Giudca et Egitto. Roma., 1570
32) G.F. Camotti : Cipro, insula nobilis. Venice, 1571
33) Joannes A : Deutecum Cypri Insvlae Nova Descript.
34) Cyprvs, Insula laeta choris, blandorum et mater amorum Antuerpiae Ambivaritorum, 1584
G. Mercator :
36) P. Mariette : Cyprus Insula Lutetiae Parisiorum. 1650
J. Wyld : Map of
H. Kiepert : New Original Map of the
1 : 400,000
40) H.H. Kitchener : A Trigonometrical Survey of the Island of Cyprus.
London : E. Stanford, 1885